The International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA)
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The International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) is a bi-annual gathering of activists, academics, journalists, practitioners, people currently or formerly imprisoned, survivors of state and personal harm, and others from across the world who are working towards the abolition of imprisonment, the penal system, carceral controls and the prison industrial complex.

ICOPA 15 is being held on Algonquin Territory / in Ottawa at the University of Ottawa from June 13 – 15, 2014. Click here or the CONFERENCE tab for more details.

 

 

Website last updated April, 8, 2014 • Copyright ©2012 ActionICOPA • All rights reserved • Privacy Statement | Website Terms & Conditions |

 


About ICOPA
 

The International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) is a bi-annual gathering of activists, academics, journalists, practitioners, people currently or formerly imprisoned, survivors of state and personal harm, and others from across the world who are working towards the abolition of imprisonment, the penal system, carceral controls and and the prison industrial complex (PIC). 

At these meetings, discussions amongst participants often focus around the following questions:

  • What is to be abolished?
  • How is abolition to be achieved?
  • What alternative relations will emerge in post-prison, post-carceral futures?

In the spirit of the politics of abolition, this website is 'unfinished' and the content will change as abolitionist thought and action evolves.

The Founding of ICOPA

With different groups engaged in prison abolitionist struggles across the world in the 1960s, 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s, most notably in Europe and North America, the Quaker Committee on Jails and Justice in Canada determined that there was a need to establish an international forum where the politics and practices of prison abolitionism could be discussed. With the initiative of many and the efforts of conference founder Ruth Morris, the planning for the first International Conference on Prison Abolition began in 1982. A year later, the first ICOPA was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

For more on the history of ICOPA and the targets of abolitionism read:

Targets of Abolitionism

The Prison

At ICOPA I (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), it was resolved that the prison system is both a cause and a result of violence and social injustice. Throughout history, the majority of prisoners have been the powerless and oppressed. We are increasingly clear that the imprisonment of human beings, like their enslavement, is inherently immoral, and is as destructive to the cagers as to the caged. It is with this in mind that delegates called for alternatives to imprisonment. 

The Penal System

At ICOPA II (Amsterdam, Netherlands), it was widely acknowledged that the introduction of alternatives often did not reduce the use of imprisonment where they had been implemented and had extended the reach of the penal system in the community. This being the case, delegates agreed that ICOPA be changed from the International Conference on Prison Abolition to the International Conference on Penal Abolition. Participants also called for alternatives not only to imprisonment, but also to the penal system itself ? what is sometimes also called the prison industrial complex ? composed of policing, the courts, imprisonment and agencies responsible for community supervision such as probation and parole.

The Carceral

At various ICOPA meetings, the continued expansion of imprisonment and the penal system, as well as the rapid expansion of carceral practices including surveillance and carceral spaces such as immigration detention centres, have been the subject of abolitionist thought and action. These issues were the primary focus of the Colloquium on the Universal Carceral held at ICOPA XII (London, England) and continue to be an important part of the agenda of the conference. 

Why Abolition?

Research and experience has shown that imprisonment, the penal system, carceral controls and the prison industrial complex are used to suppress marginalized groups who are disproportionally targeted by these systems. Targeted groups include the poor, ethnic and racialized minorities, women and transgendered communities, communities of prohibited substance users and people defined as mentally ill.

The penal system and what is generated by it are seen as a cure-all tasked with addressing complex social conflicts and harms in our communities that have been designated as 'crimes'. Seen in this light, responses and solutions to these issues are taken up by the state in a way that systematically erodes the ability of people impacted by them to have meaningful input in the process and outcomes of their personal affairs.

From the first moment an act (such as consuming an 'illicit' drug) or status (such as not having legal documentation of citizenship) is criminalized, an enormous industry emerges of people profiting from that criminalization. That profit extends through the public, private and 'non-profit' sectors and benefits from the security services, surveillance, policing, judicial proceedings, imprisonment and community supervision. Because the institutions and practices that form the prison industrial complex have a vested interest in the continued expansion of the penal system and other repressive tools they represent a substantial barrier to a world without prisons and carceral controls.

Prison, penal, carceral and PIC abolitionists are working towards building a society concerned with generating solidarity instead of criminalizing difference, building community instead of othering, and promoting self determination instead of authoritarian forms of repression.

Mission of ICOPA

  1. Motivate the abolitionist community while increasing solidarity;

  2. Provide a forum for the flow and exchange of ideas advancing abolitionist goals;

  3. Contribute to the public sensitization and education on abolitionist issues;

  4. Addressing questions of viable alternatives to the prison industrial complex.

  5. Acknowledge and involve those most affected by penal policies, people inside and those connected to them.

 

 

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Get Informed

To learn more about prison, penal and carceral abolitionism, check-out the videos, audio commentary and literature linked from this site.

  • Campaigns
  • Speakers
  • Videos
  • Audio
  • Literature

 

Learn more about some of the campaigns and organizations that have participated at ICOPA meetings over the years.

  ActionPrisons (Belfast)
  Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies
  Canadian Friends Service Committee
  Critical Resistance
  The Hulsman Foundation
  Justice Action
  KROM: Norway Association for Penal Reform
  Rittenhouse
  Save the Kids
  Email info@actionaicopa.org to suggest campaigns related to prison, penal or carceral abolition to be posted on the ICOPA website

 

 

 

Invite a speaker in your country to talk about building community and democracy, as well as abolishing prisons, the penal system and carceral controls.

  E-mail info@actionicopa.org to volunteer to be or suggest an ICOPA speaker

 


  Presentations from ICOPA 13
  Visions of Abolition: From Critical Resistance to a New Way of Life
  E-mail info@actionicopa.org to suggest videos related to prison, penal or carceral abolition to be posted on the ICOPA website

 

 

  "No More Prisons" by Hurricane G
  "The 'Other' is We" by Justin Piché
  E-mail info@actionicopa.org to suggest audio files related to prison, penal or carceral abolition to be posted on the ICOPA website

 

 

  4strugglemag
  Abu-Jamal, Mumia [edited by Noelle Hanrahan] (2000) All Things Censored, New York: Seven Stories Press.
  Bianchi, Herman and René van Swaaningen (eds.) (1985) Abolitionism: Towards a Non-repressive Approach to Crime, Amsterdam: Free University Press.
  Bissonette, Jamie (2008) When the Prisoners Ran Walpole, Cambridge (MA): South End Press.
  Carlen, Pat (1990) Alternatives to Women's Imprisonment, Milton Keynes (UK): Open University Press.
  Carlton, Bree (2007) Imprisoning Resistance: Life and Death in an Australian Supermax, Sydney: Institute of Criminology Press.
  Chevigny, Bell (ed.) (1999) Doing Time: 25 Years of Prison Writing, New York: Arcade Publishing.
  Christie, Nils (2000) Crime Control as Industry, New York: Routledge.
  Cohen, Stanley (1985) Visions of Social Control, Cambridge (MA): Polity Press.
  Contemporary Crises [Volume 10, Number 1] (1986) Crime, Law and Social Change, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  Contemporary Justice Review
  Criminal Justice Matters [Volume 77] (2009) Exploring Penal Reform.
  Critical Perspectives at Critical Criminology Information and Resources
  Critical Resistance - Resources
  Critical Resistance Publications Collective (eds.) (2008) Abolition Now! Ten Years of Strategy and Struggle Against the Prison Industrial Complex, Oakland: AK Press.
  Culhane, Claire (1991) No Longer Barred from Prison: Social Injustice in Canada, Montreal: Black Rose Books.
  Culhane, Claire (1985) Still Barred from Prison: Social Injustice in Canada, Montreal: Black Rose Books.
  Culhane, Claire (1979) Barred from Prison, Vancouver: Pulp Press.
  Davis, Angela Y. (2003) Are Prisons Obsolete?, New York: Seven Stories Press.
  Davis, Angela Y. and Eduardo Mendieta (2005) Abolition Democracy: Beyond Prison, Torture and Empire, New York: Seven Stories Press.
  de Haan, Willem (1990) The Politics of Redress: Crime, Punishment, and Penal Abolition, London: Unwin Hyman
  Elias, Robert (1993) Victims Still: The Political Manipulation of Crime Victims, London: Sage.
  Elliott, Elizabeth M. (2011) Security with Care: Restorative Justice & Healthy Societies, Black Point (NS): Fernwood.
  Gaucher, Bob (ed.) (2002) Writing as Resistance: The Journal of Prisoners on Prisons Anthology (1988-2002), Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
  Gilmore, Ruth W. (2007) Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, and Opposition in Globalizing California, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  Herivel, Tara and Paul Wright (eds.) (2009) Prison Profiteers: Who Makes Money from Mass Incarceration, New York: The New Press.
  Herivel, Tara and Paul Wright (eds.) (2003) Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor, New York: Routledge.
  Hudson, Joe and Burt Galaway (eds.) (1975) Restitution in Criminal Justice: A Critical Assessment of Sanctions, Toronto: Lexington Books.
  INCITE! Women of Colour Against Violence - Resources for Organizing
  INCITE! Women of Colour Against Violence (eds.) (2007) The Revolution Will Not Be Funded, Cambridge (MA): South End Press.
  Jackson, George (1994) Soledad Brother: The Prison Letters of George Jackson, Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
  James, Joy (ed.) (2007) Warfare in the American Homeland: Policing and Prison in a Penal Democracy, Durham (NC): Duke University Press.
  James, Joy (ed.) (2003) Imprisoned Intellectuals: America's Political Prisoners Write on Life, Liberation, and Rebellion, Lanham (MD): Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  Journal of Prisoners on Prisons
  Journal of Social Justice
  Just Blog :: A Rittenhouse production
  Knopp, Fay Honey (coordinator) (1976) Instead of Prisons: A Handbook for Abolitionists, Syracuse: Prison Research Education Action Project.
  Magnani, Laura and Harmon L. Wray (2006) Beyond Prisons: A New Interfaith Paradigm for Our Failed Prison System, Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
  Mathiesen, Thomas (2006) Prison on Trial, Winchester (UK): Waterside Press.
  Mathiesen, Thomas (2004) Silently Silenced: Essays on the Creation of Acquiescence in Modern Society, Winchester (UK): Waterside Press.
  Mathiesen, Thomas (1980) Law, Society and Political Action: Towards a Strategy under Late Capitalism, New York: Academic Press.
  Mathiesen, Thomas (1974) The Politics of Abolition, London: Martin Robertson.
  Mauer, Marc (2006) Race to Incarcerate, New York: The New Press.
  Mauer, Marc and Meda Chesney-Lind (eds.) (2002) Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment, New York: The New Press.
  Morris, Ruth (2000) Stories of Transformative Justice, Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
  Morris, Ruth (1995) Penal Abolition, The Practical Choice: A Practical Manual on Penal Abolition, Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
  Morris, Ruth (1989) Crumbling Walls: Why Prisons Fail, Toronto: Mosaic Press.
  Morris, Ruth and Ruth Bradley-St-Cyr (2005) Transcending Trauma, Embrun (ON): Winding Trail Press.
  Nagel, Mecke (2007) "The Role of Prisons in a Socialist Future or: The Incorrigible Ethos of Incarceration", in Anton and Schmitt (eds.) The Future of Socialism, Lexington Books, pp. 325-345.
  Nagel, Mecke (2003) "Prison Intellectuals and the Struggle for Abolition", in T. Dickinson (ed.) Community and the World: Participating in Social Change, Nova Science, pp. 165-175.
  Netherlands Criminal Justice Investigative Seminar Participants (1978) How Holland Supports Its Low Incarceration Rate: Lessons for Us.
  Parenti, Christian (1999) Lockdown America: Police and Prisons in the Age of Crisis, New York: New Left Books.
  Pepinsky, Hal (2006) Peacemaking: Reflections of a Radical Criminologist, Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.
  Pepinsky, Hal and Richard Quinney (eds.) (1991) Criminology as Peacemaking, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  Prison Activist Resource Center
  PRISONJUSTICE.CA
  Quakers Committee of Jails and Justice (Canada) Resources
  Radical Teacher #88 [also see #91] (2010) Radical Teaching Against the Prison Industrial Complex, Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
  Reiman, Jeffrey and Paul Leighton (2009) The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison: Ideology, Class, and Criminal Justice, Toronto: Allyn & Bacon.
  Rodriguez, Dylan (2006) Forced Passages: Imprisoned Radical Intellectuals, and the U.S. Prison Regime, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  Ruggiero, Vincenzo (2010) Penal Abolitionism, New York: Oxford University Press.
  Ryan, Mick (2003) Penal Policy and Political Culture in England and Wales, Winchester (UK): Waterside Press.
  Ryan, Mick (1978) Radical Alternatives to Prison and the Penal Lobby, Praeger.
  Saleh-Hanna, Viviane (2008) Colonial Systems of Control: Criminal Justice in Nigeria, Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.
  Scraton, Phil and Jude McCulloch (eds.) The Violence of Incarceration, London: Routledge.
  Sim, Joe (2009) Punishment and Prisons: Power and the Carceral State, London: Sage.
  Social Justice: A Journal of Crime, Conflict & World Order
  Solinger, Rickie et al. (eds.) (2010) Interrupted Life: Experiences of Incarcerated Women in the United States, Berkeley: University of Ca
  Sudbury, Julia (ed.) Global Lockdown: Race, Gender, and the Prison-Industrial Complex, New York: Routledge.
  Sullivan, Dennis and Larry Tifft (2005) Restorative Justice: Healing the Foundations of Our Everyday Lives, St. Louis (MO): Willow Tree Press.
  The Abolitionist: A Publication of Critical Resistance
  The Business of Detention
  The Penal Press
  The Real Cost of Prisons Project
  The Redwood Highway
  The Sentencing Project
  Transformative Justice Journal: Breaking the Chains of Oppression and Punishment
  West, W. Gordon and Ruth Morris (eds.) (2000) The Case for Penal Abolition, Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
  Zehr, Howard (1990) Changing Lenses: A New Focus for Crime and Justice, Waterloo: Herald Press.
  E-mail info@actionicopa.org to suggest literature related to prison, penal or carceral abolition to be posted on the ICOPA website

 

 

 

Past Conferences

To view past conferences, the abstracts, resolutions, literature, video/audio for each of the conferences, click on the header tab.

 


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ICOPA 13 (2010) – Belfast, Northern Ireland - Abolition, Reform and the Politics of Global Incarceration

ICOPA 11 (2006) – Tasmania, Australia

ICOPA 10 (2002) – Lagos, Nigeria

ICOPA 9 (2000) – Toronto, Canada - Transformative Justice: New Questions, New Answers

ICOPA 8 (1997) – Aotearoa, New Zealand - Pathways to Penal Abolition

  ICOPA VIII Conference Pamphlet
  ICOPA VIII Conference Programme (cut off)
  ICOPA VIII Papers
  Mailing List Offers from Rittenhouse
  E-mail info@actionicopa.org to suggest any materials related to ICOPA 8 to be posted on this website

ICOPA 7 (1995) – Barcelona, Spain - Penal Abolition, A Real Utopia

ICOPA 6 (1993) – San Jose, Costa Rica - Challenging Third World Governments to Adopt Abolitionist Steps

  ICOPA VI - Conference Overview
  E-mail info@actionicopa.org to suggest any materials related to ICOPA 6 to be posted on this website

ICOPA 5 (1991) – Bloomington, Indiana, United States - Aboriginal Roots and Radical Empowerment

  Report on the Fifth International Conference on Penal Abolition compiled by Hal Pepinsky
  E-mail info@actionicopa.org to suggest any materials related to ICOPA 5 to be posted on this website

ICOPA 4 (1989) – Kazimierz, Poland - Abolitionism in Eastern Europe

  E-mail info@actionicopa.org to suggest any materials related to ICOPA 4 to be posted on this website

ICOPA 1 (1983) – Toronto, Canada - How to Include All the Most Difficult Groups in the Community

  ICOPA I Program
  E-mail info@actionicopa.org to suggest any materials related to ICOPA 1 to be posted on this website


 

 

 

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PRELIMINARY CONFERENCE PROGRAM

* Download the preliminary conference program (please note additions and minor changes will be made)

CONFERENCE REGISTRATION 

To help the local organizing committee prepare for the conference, please register as an ICOPA conference participant or presenter.  For presenters, please note that your pre-conference registration will serve as confirmation for your presentation, panel or workshop and its inclusion in the final program that will be distributed to delegates at ICOPA 15.  For presenters who are making their contribution via Skype, we also request that you register as an off-campus participant using the conference registration website.   


CALL FOR VOLUNTEERS FOR ICOPA 15

The organizing committee also invites volunteers to assist with the various aspects of conference planning and logistics.  If you are interested in volunteering please contact at the email or mailing address noted at the bottom of this page.

* Download the call for volunteers
  


ICOPA RENEWAL AND VISIONING EXERCISE

In the lead-up to ICOPA 15 we are initiating a conversation about how to build upon this unique global conference and chart a renewed vision that speaks to the concerns of those engaged in abolitionist struggles and their allies.  

Abolitionists from around the world are encouraged to engage their networks and hold discussions to: 1) identify who is engaged in abolitionist work in their local community, region and nation state; 2) Document the issues that are the focus of their related thoughts and actions; and 3) Describe what role they would envision for an international abolitionist forum, and what they would hope to gain and share by taking part in such a network.  In holding these conversations we encourage submissions of pieces in any format (see, for example, those noted in the call for participants and contributions above) to the email or mailing address at the bottom of this webpage.  

As submissions are received they will be posted on this website and circulated using social media networks (e.g. Facebook, Twitter and YouTube) to stimulate our on-going dialogue on the future of this international abolitionist forum.  The submissions will also be summarized in our bi-monthly newsletter that is available on our website and is mailed to our imprisoned allies.

* Download the renewal and visioning exercise handout 


ICOPA 15 NEWSLETTER UPDATES

Recognizing that prisoners do contribute insights gained through their carceral and life experiences, ICOPA is in the process of developing outreach initiatives designed to enlist and encourage the participation of "exiled voices" in discussions related to the abolition of prisons, the penal system, carceral controls, and the prison industrial complex.  

This newsletter, which provides information to prisoners about ICOPA 15, is one example of how we wish to connect with the incarcerated going forward.  If you have any feedback on this newsletter or have other ideas on how ICOPA can work with and support those who are in prison, please send an email or letter to the addresses listed at the bottom of this webpage.  

We encourage you to share this newsletter with your incarcerated allies and loved ones. 

* Download the March 2013 actionicopa.org update
* Download the May 2013 actionicopa.org update
* Download the September 2013 actionicopa.org update
* Download the December 2013 actionicopa.org update 
* Download the March 2014 actionicopa.org update

The next actionicopa.org update featuring news about participants confirmed to date and conference planning activities will be available here the week of March 24th.


TRAVEL AND ACCOMMODATIONS

For information on how to travel to Algonquin Territory / Ottawa and book accommodations please visit http://www.ottawatourism.ca and http://www.ottawakiosk.com. These websites also provide information about tourist destinations in the National Capital Region and surrounding areas.

A block of rooms located at the uOttawa campus (see full list of rates here) has been reserved for ICOPA 15 participants:

Suites located at 90 University 
- $99 per night + 13% HST (whether for single- or double-occupancy)
- Reservation code #280785
 
One-person and two-person dorm rooms located in uOttawa's conventional residences 
- $35 per night + 13% HST (per person)
- Reservation code #280786
 
The accommodations above can be booked through uOttawa Housing Service, by email at reserve@uottawa.ca or by phone at (613) 564-5400 / 1-888-564-4545 (toll free).

A block of rooms is also available at the Ottawa Downtown Holiday Inn & Suites.  This hotel located at 111 Cooper Street and is about a 10-minute walk to uOttawa campus.  Single- and double-occupancy rooms are available for $119.00 per night + 13% HST.  There is a $10 charge per additional person sharing a room.  To make your reservation call toll free at 1-800-267-8378 and quote reference number 7347 to get this preferred rate.

Les Suites Hotel at 130 Besserer Street in Ottawa has set aside a block of suites for visiting conference participants.  The preferred group rates are $169 / night for a Premiere One Bedroom Suite and $239 / night for a Premiere Two Bedroom Suite.  Both suites provide fully-equipped kitchens, ensuite laundry facilities, private balconies, complimentary high-speed wireless Internet and is located 10 minutes (walking) from the conference venue.  To reserve a room call toll-free at 1-800-267-1989 ext. 3319. 


DONATE OR BECOME AN OTTAWA BILLET PROVIDER

ICOPA is also accepting donations via its website from those who wish to support the event in a manner that will ensure that a range of voices are able to travel to Algonquin Territory / Ottawa to share their knowledge with and learn from the experiences of others. If you live in the host territory / city and are interested in acting as a billet for conference participants please contact the event organizer as soon as possible.

CONTACT FOR ICOPA 15

To get more information on ICOPA 15 or to submit contribution proposals, as well as travel and housing support applications, please direct all correspondence via email to icopa.canada@gmail.com or by mail to:

ICOPA 15
c/o Justin Piché
Department of Criminology
University of Ottawa
120 University
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
K1N 6N5
Copyright ©2012 ActionICOPA. All image and reproduction rights reserved | Privacy Statement | Website Terms & Conditions |

 

Donations

As a non-profit entity, the International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) seeks donations to help send delegates from across the world with limited incomes, current or past involvement with criminalization and punishment, and from developing country's to its bi-annual conferences. ICOPA also seeks donations to help maintain this website.

All funds donated through this website are collected and managed by the International Foundation for a Prisonless Society (IFPS) – an entity established by ICOPA founder Ruth Morris – to support the activities of the conference-movement. We appreciate any monetary support to ensure those who participate in abolitionist organizing have a forum through which they can share their experiences with like-minded individuals from across the world.

Please note that the IFPS is not a registered charity and does not issue charitable receipts. Also note that any registration fees are to be paid directly to the local conference organizers and not to the IFPS.

You can show your support for ICOPA by making a donation in either one of two ways: 1) donate online and 2) donate by cheque.

Donate Online
Using our Paypal® Express checkout system you can conveniently make your donation directly online. The system accepts VISA, Mastercard and American Express. Simply click on the "DONATION" button and follow the instructions.

You also have the option to make a donation subscription [consecutive monthly payments]. Simply click on the “Subscribe” button and follow the directions. Of course should you wish to unsubscribe, you may do so at anytime by revisiting this page, selecting the “unsubscribe” button (at the bottom of this page) and following the instructions.

Please note, that if you do not have a PayPal® account you will be asked to set one up.

 

 

Select from one of the options below:

 

 

Donate by cheque
Make the cheque payable to the “International Foundation for a Prisonless Society”. Please be sure to include the standard postage and address the envelope to:

International Foundation for a Prisonless Society
c/o Ray Morris
281, 8 Street North East
Salmon Arm, British Columbia
Canada V1E 1G9

 

Copyright ©2012 ActionICOPA. All image and reproduction rights reserved | Privacy Statement | Website Terms & Conditions |

 

 

 

Contact

For more information on ICOPA 15, which is being held on Algonquin Territory
in Ottawa at the University of Ottawa from June 13 – 15th, 2014, please contact:

ICOPA 15
c/o Justin Piché
Department of Criminology
University of Ottawa
120 University
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
K1N 6N5

icopa.canada@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

 

Website last updated April, 8, 2014 • Copyright ©2012 ActionICOPA • All rights reserved • Privacy Statement | Website Terms & Conditions |

 

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International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA): Legal Notice, Disclaimer and Terms of Use
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1. The User may freely download, copy, display, exhibit, share, or otherwise distribute the Content of this Website for non-commercial purposes only. However, on any such downloading, copying, display, exhibition, sharing or distribution, the User must explicitly acknowledge International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) as the provider of such Content. International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) reserves the right to require the User to delete, destroy or otherwise remove any content that is used in a manner that in International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) opinion is contrary or otherwise inappropriate, derogatory or offensive. 2. The User agrees that any person to whom the Content is provided directly or indirectly through the User, will be advised of the terms of this Agreement, and that each such person is bound by these terms. 3. The User may in no way modify, reformulate, adapt, alter, adjust, change, disassemble, frame or decrypt any of the Content of this Website.

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1. By posting via email or otherwise any Content, trade secrets, or know-how to this Website, including electronic mail, the User grants to International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) a perpetual, non-exclusive, irrevocable, worldwide, royalty-free right and licence to use, download, upload, copy, exhibit, display, distribute, publish, post to any other public forum, perform, sell, alter, modify, change, sub-license, create derivative works from and otherwise treat as its own such Content, trade secrets or know-how in whatever manner International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) shall, in its sole discretion, deem appropriate without any form of recognition, credit, acknowledgement, reward or compensation whatsoever for the User's contribution of such Content, trade secrets, or know-how to International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) Furthermore, International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees will in no way be responsible or liable for damages, whether they be direct, indirect, consequential, incidental, special, punitive, exemplary or general damages, contribution or indemnity of any kind whatsoever, howsoever caused, resulting from any alterations or additions to its goods, products, programs, promotions and/or services which may resemble any Content, trade secrets, or know-how posted to this Website, including electronic mail, by any User. 2. Furthermore, by posting any Content, trade secrets, or know-how to this Website, including electronic mail, the User represents and warrants that such Content, trade secrets, or know-how is his or her own work, is non-confidential, and its use by International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) in no way violates the intellectual property or other rights of any third parties. The duty to ensure non-infringement of the rights of any third parties rests solely with the User. 3. The User agrees to indemnify, contribute to, and hold harmless International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees against any liability, be it civil, criminal, or quasi-criminal, resulting from the use, transfer or sub-license by International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) of any Content, trade secrets or know-how provided to International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) by the User. This indemnification shall extend and apply to any payment or other agreement made by International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees in settlement and/or satisfaction of any such claim or potential claim, whether such settlement and/or satisfaction is either full or partial, and whether the payment or other agreement is made or concluded either prior to or following the institution of proceedings against International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees. As part of this indemnification, the User agrees to co-operate with all reasonable requests made by International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees.

V. Choice of law
1. Any dispute arising out of the use of this Website, the Content or availability thereof, the construction or interpretation of this Agreement, or anything related or similar thereto is governed by the laws of the province of Ontario, Canada, without any reference to conflicts of laws rules or principles. 2. Any dispute arising out of the use of this Website, the Content or availability thereof, the construction or interpretation of this Agreement, or anything related or similar thereto is only to be decided by a court of competent jurisdiction sitting within the legal boundaries of the province of Ontario, Canada.

VI. Rights to control site
1. The Content of this Website is subject to change, restriction or termination without any notice to Users.

VII. Limitations of liability
1. This site is designed to provide knowledge for informational purposes only. The information is taken from sources believed to be reliable, and the information is believed to be accurate at the time it is posted to the Website. However, there is no way to ensure that the information is accurate at any moment in time. 2. There are certain links on this Website which will lead the User to other sites on the World Wide Web. These links are provided for convenience only, and a link to any other Website should not be taken to imply any endorsement of any other Website by International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees. 3. International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees are in no way responsible or liable for any damages whether they be direct, indirect, consequential, incidental, special, punitive, exemplary or general damages, contribution or indemnity, of any kind whatsoever, howsoever caused, (including, but not limited to, breach of contract, loss of profit, business interruption, loss of business data or information, negligence or other tortious behaviour, deletion, error, defect, omission, or destruction of the Content of the Website, unauthorized access to, or alteration of, the Content of this Website by third parties, or employees, or agents of International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), transmission of material, or any other cause of action, regardless of whether it arises at law or in equity) arising out of the use or non-availability of this Website, or reliance on the Content contained herein, resulting from any decision taken on the basis of information provided through the Website, resulting from the Content of other websites to which any User links through this Website, or resulting from any such change, restriction, or termination of this Website or resulting from the incompatibility of any software downloaded, copied, or otherwise originating from this Website. 4. This limitation of liability shall apply even if International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees have been advised of the possibility of the damages referred in this notice. 5. This Website is provided "as is". International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees do not warrant that the use of this Website will be uninterrupted, error-free, stable or suitable for all Users. International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees make no warranties, either express or implied, about the Website, its availability, or its operation Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, this includes implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, expectation of privacy, or non-infringement. Any User who accesses this Website does so solely at his or her own risk. The User agrees to indemnify, contribute to and hold harmless International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents, and/or employees, against any liability, be it civil, criminal or quasi-criminal, resulting from any violation of any law by the User in their use of this Website. The User shall be responsible to the full extent of any liability, payment or other agreement made by International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees, in settlement and/or satisfaction of any claim or potential claim, whether such payment or agreement is made or concluded prior to or following the institution of formal proceedings against International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA), its subsidiaries, affiliates, contractors, agents and/or employees.

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